If there is one thing on this planet that is genuinely fascinating, it is human DNA. It's 2021, and there is so much information about it that we still don't know. Not only that, but it took centuries for scientists to figure out that DNA stores genetic information.
Before 1943 it was believed that proteins stored genetic information. Additionally, it wasn't until 1953 that we finally learned about the DNA structure. If you're curious to know more about your DNA, you no longer have to. Here are the top facts about DNA that will satisfy your mind.
- All Humans Are 99.9% Identical
You must be thinking that this statement is not valid. After all, we have different faces, skin color, eye structure, and much more. However, it is a fact that all of us have 99.9% identical DNA.
It is the remaining 0.1% that makes each person unique. This is the part that allows us to have different physical structures. Not only that, but this small percent holds essential information about other diseases. At least, this is what scientists believe.
- DNA Helps Us To Grow
One of the known purposes of DNA is that it allows the coding of proteins. That is because it is made up of nucleotide pairs. These contain instructions that initiate the generation of proteins.
After the proteins are made, our body uses them for different functions. These help us to grow and survive. That is why DNA holds high importance and clues about life.
- Our DNA Isn’t Entirely Human
Yes, you heard us right. About five to eight percent of our DNA is not human. Instead, scientists state that it is viral DNA. We carry approximately 100,000 pieces that came from retroviruses.
Of course, due to human evolution, viral DNA became incorporated into our genome. However, you shouldn't worry about it. That is because it does not cause any harm.
- DNA Becomes Damaged Daily
If you think that human DNA cannot suffer damage, you’re mistaken. According to research, thousands of internal events take place daily that cause harm to our DNA. Not only that, but even external factors affect the health of DNA.
But fear not. That is because our body contains unique proteins that repair DNA. Currently, scientists know of five pathways that help in the repair of this nucleic acid.
- A Person Can Have Two Different DNA Profiles
This is a phenomenon that rarely takes place but does happen. A person that has two DNA profiles is medically referred to as a chimera. This condition typically occurs during pregnancy.
Sometimes a female may have twins in her womb. But at times, one fetus can absorb the other one. So, in the end, the mother only gives birth to one chimera. Besides that, a bone marrow transplant can also lead to an individual turning into a chimera.
These are the top five things about DNA that scientists have confirmed to be true. Besides that, there are facts about this nucleic acid that we don't know. And it will take many more years to understand the DNA molecule completely.